In every garden, there is a culture called plum. The fruits of these trees are very tasty and juicy, but, unfortunately, do not have a long shelf life.
therefore it is very important to know the time of ripening and the rules for harvesting and storing the crop.
Also significant damage can cause premature shedding of fruits, which can be prevented by knowing some tricks.
In which month you can harvest from a tree: in the Urals, in Siberia and Central Russia
Varieties of plums have different ripening terms. Harvesting can begin in July, and this process will end in September-October.
Early varieties of plums - their maturation period falls on the end of July - the beginning of August. Such trees produce abundant crops. The most prominent representatives are: Morning, Opal, Renkold, Record, Red Ball and Early River Zarechnaya.
Mid-season varieties of plums - such fruits are notable for excellent taste and aroma. Their ripening period lasts from mid-August to mid-September.
Experienced gardeners distinguish the following varieties: Blue Gift, Zanyatnaya, Sukhanovskaya, Mashenka, Romain and East Souvenir.
Late varieties of plums - such fruits are most often used for preservation, they begin to ripen at the end of August and the fruits can be removed until mid-September.
The most popular varieties are: Renkold Tambov, Bogatyrskaya, Zhiguli, Svetlana and the President.The ripening time of a plum depends on the variety and region of cultivation.
Ural and Siberia are significantly different climate from the central and southern regions of Russia. The ripening period of the plum and the harvest in the Urals and in Siberia falls on the end of August - the beginning of September.
I would also like to note that very often due to the lack of heat and light, plums do not ripen to full ripeness.
The harvest period does not depend on the color of the fruit.. The term of ripening is determined by the plum variety, not its color.
How to remove the fruit so that they are kept longer?
For, to keep the plum harvest as long as possible, you must adhere to the following rules during the collection of fruits.
Compliance with this rule will significantly save time and effort, as well as increase the shelf life of the plum. After all, it is much easier to collect the fruits already dry than to prepare them for maturing for a long time.
If you collect plums, as soon as the fruits begin to formthen this process will prevent shedding and significantly increase the amount of the crop.
During the removal of the fruit in the country, they should not be softTo the right degree, this fruit can ripen in a dry and warm place.To keep the plum harvest longer, you must adhere to the harvest rules.
From the effects of the external environment, the plum protects the wax on the skin; accordingly, if it is not damaged, then the shelf life will be much longer.
What to do: do not once again touch the fruit, during removal they should be cut off with the stem or use scissors.
It is most convenient to immediately place the fruit in storage boxes or containers.
You may be interested in the following publications:
- A detailed description of the variety of plums Egg blue.
- A detailed description of the plum Pissardi.
- A detailed description of the plum variety Candy.
Harvesting technology is simple, but many ignore this sequence, which is why fruits not yet removed from the branches will be unsuitable for storage or transportation. Begin picking plum from the lower branchesmoving from the edge of the branch to the trunk.
To collect fruits from the top of the tree, it is recommended to use a ladder or stepladder. In no case can not stand on the branches.
Such actions entail not only damage to the tree, but can also cause serious damage to health in the form of bruises, abrasions and even fractures.
Also can't shake a tree, because the fallen fruits will be confused and will not be able to lie for a long time, such plums can either be eaten immediately, or used to make compotes, jams or juices.
To preserve the fruits for up to 2 months, they need to create comfortable conditions for them. For a start, they are gently folded, without causing mechanical damage and without erasing the wax coating.The best container for storing plums are wooden boxes or plastic trays lined with paper.
The best packaging are wooden boxes or plastic trays lined with paper. Then you need to provide a comfortable temperature from 0 to -2 degrees and humidity of 85%.
Everything damaged plums must not be storedthey will start to rot and rot very quickly.
The crop ripens non-uniformly, therefore remove the fruit is best in 2-3 doses.
Why does the plum fall prematurely?
Very often it happens that the fruits, without waiting for full ripening, begin to fall from the tree. Because of this, you can lose most of the crop, so it is very important to know the causes of plum shedding. Why do fruits fall off?
Lack of nutrients in the soil can lead to full fall of fruits. Fertilize the plum tree should be according to a special scheme. Also, if you inspect the trees in a timely manner, you can identify which component is missing.
In that case, when there is little potassium in the ground, the branches become weaker and cannot bear the weight of ripened fruits.
When the soil is low in nitrogen, plums may not ripen at all, because due to the lack of this component, the tree begins to grow more slowly, the leaves turn yellow, the ovaries form too small and quickly crumble.Insect pests, lack of nutrients in the soil and lack of moisture can be causes of plum shedding.
The plum root system is located very close to the ground, and because of this, it is necessary to water the tree much more often. Lack of moisture can lead to shredding of fruits and to their shedding in unripe form.
Another cause of plum shedding can be attack of various insect pests. They can harm both the tree as a whole and its fruits:
- Plum moth - it lays its eggs in the fruits of plums in the spring, and young caterpillars actively begin to feed on ovaries. Because of this, there is a significant loss of crop or its shedding in an unripe form at the beginning of summer.
- Coaster - these butterflies begin to fly over the tree about a week after it blooms, laying their eggs in the fruit pit. The caterpillars of the crowncrest devour the plum from the inside, so their actions are often difficult to determine, they go unnoticed until the beginning of the shedding of fruits in early June.
- Plum sawfly - the larvae of these insects enter the ovaries and begin to feed on the flesh and the still not strong bones. Because of them, still green fruits fall.
What to do to prevent shedding?
In order not to lose a significant part of the plum crop, it is necessary to properly care for the tree and perform all the necessary procedures in time.
Timely and plentiful top dressing replenish the supply of nutrients and the tree will have more power to form and ripen the fruit. In addition, fertile soil will help ripe plums, as long as possible to stay on the branches.
You also need to carefully monitor the state of the tree, and if you find signs of a shortage of a component, you will need to immediately make it.
The aridity of soil is one of the reasons why fruits begin to crumble. Therefore very it is important not to miss the time of watering, do not let the soil dry out, properly build a schedule for this procedure.
On average, the plum is watered 3-5 times during the entire flowering and fruiting season.
But this indicator may decrease or increase depending on the following indicators:
- amount of precipitation;
- air humidity level;
- groundwater level;
- Also, the presence of other plantings in adjacent territories may affect the abundance of irrigation.
Experienced gardeners recommend watering the plum using special trenches.that are dug at crown level. Its depth should be 40-60 centimeters.It is recommended to water the plum using special trenches, the soil must be mulched
To keep moisture longer, it is necessary to mulch the earth around the trunk of a tree, preventing it from drying out.
Also, to prevent the fall of plum fruits, you need to know how to combat insect pests.
Plum moth - in order to prevent the fertilization of the larvae, it is recommended in late May - early June to hang on the tree pheromone traps, which have a devastating effect on males.
You can also use various chemicals, such as "Fitoverm" or "Karbofos".
Coaster - in order to get rid of insects, it is necessary to treat the affected trees with "Confidor" or "Dantop".
This procedure is carried out immediately after flowering and repeat after 10-15 days. For a more effective struggle you need to collect and burn the whole carrion.
As a preventative measure, experienced gardeners recommend spraying a tree with water during the summer of butterflies.The main pests for the plum are the sawfly, cochlea and moth
Plum Sawer - You can get rid of pests by spraying the tree with insecticides during the formation of pink buds.
Plum trees give a rich and tasty harvest, which you can begin to harvest in mid-July, and finish eating fruits in late September.
To keep the plums as long as possible and prevent them from shedding., you need to follow all the above tips.