Potatoes during the entire period of flowering ripening very actively consumes mineral fertilizers. The roots of the plant are weak, and the tubers grow large and numerous, which is why he regularly lacks micro and macro components. In the autumn, after harvesting, the land becomes depleted, and if it is not fed, then next year there will be nothing to collect. Consider how to fertilize the culture in the open field.
Fertilizers for potatoes: features, how and when to make
Excellent potato harvest will be after you purchased the plot and started processing it. Tselina has many nutrients that are necessary for the growth of potatoes.It is impossible to grow vegetables on one site without crop rotation - the land will lose its properties
Over the years the land is getting poorer. Potatoes need fertilizer during the preparation of the land for planting, and throughout the cultivation period.
When landing in the hole in the spring
It is necessary to do this right in the nest during landing. You can add a sand spade to the prepared nest together with top dressing, then the tubers will be clean and the wireworm will not harm the parasite.
In the nest simultaneously with sand throw volume with a liter capacity of manure or compost. If the land is rich in minerals, you can make 1⁄2 liter cans of organic matter. Then pour a handful of ash into the hole, mix everything thoroughly and you can plant potatoes.
If mineral supplements, then make them into the hole should be strictly according to the instructions on the package. They can also be mixed with sand and then planted tubers.
Mineral fertilizers and siderats: what is needed in the spring
- Potassium Sulphate
- Double Super Phosphorus
These supplements are great enrich the land and greatly increase the yield. In the autumn you need to take care of feeding the land. To this end, wicked in the winter. This is a wonderful vegetable addition that collects nitrogen and other microcomponents in its stems.
Other siderats are known. These are: mustard, oats, lupins, wheat. These plants help the growth of tuberous microbes, they give out nitrogen.
Method of application is not complicated. Before planting potatoes, siderats are sown when plowing the ground.
The drug is made from mineral material with a large number of phosphorus, which is treated with other compounds: nitric acid, ammonium sulfate, potassium chloride.
As a result, receive additional food, consisting of:
- Ammonia and potassium nitrate;
- Calcium chloride and ammonium.
Its composition depends on how it was made.
there is three types of fertilizer:
- Sulfuric acid;
For potatoes, phosphate rock is most suitable. In strongly sandy and sod-podzolic lands, it is possible to use the sulphate type. Fertilizer should be without chlorine, which reduces plant growth.
Potatoes that are set aside for germination, six days are treated with fertilizer solution. This is done only once.
Complex plants like many plants - they provide the potato with all useful and necessary substances.
Mineral are chemical compounds from salts used by gardeners to feed.
Separate fertilizer enhances certain qualities. potatoes at all stages of growth. The combination of some species is more productive for the overall growth of potatoes.
Today there are several types of such additives. They have two or more necessary components and trace elements. Consider the most effective of them and the order of processing.Complex fertilizer for potatoes
Highly productive, nitrogen-phosphoric - in peas. It is used on different types of land for main and separate use, for feeding potato during growth.Ammophos
Not a simple, three-component substance consisting of: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It is applied on different types of lands, for various agricultural crops.Ammofoska
Concentrate, highly productive feeding, consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. It is made in granules. It is used on land depleted in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.Diammofoska
Highly productive, compound fertilizerconsisting of sulfur.Nitroammofosk
Ash when planting potatoes
Wood ash is the remains of plants after a fire. They have 74 chemical components that are necessary for the growth of potatoes. Due to its heterogeneous composition, it serves as an organic substitute for non-natural mineral fertilizing, which fertilizes tubers.
For a great harvest, you need to correctly apply this additive, and not just pour "the more the better."
The chemical composition depends on what ash is derived from:
- Tree (birch or pine) - 14% potassium and 7% phosphorus, perfectly limits the acidic lands;
- Sunflower and buckwheat - Potassium and 35% calcium;
- Wheat and rye - Phosphorus;
- Potato stalks - 30% potassium, 20% calcium, 8% phosphorus;
- The absence of chlorine distinguishes it from other similar feedings, but it does not contain nitrogen, therefore it is necessary to use it in the complex.
For potatoes, it is best to use these fertilizers with a small amount of chlorine. Potash is:
- Potassium sulphate;
- Dust from cement granules;
Its advantage is the presence of ash tree. Potassium is present in it without chlorine, which is very good effect on the collection and properties of potatoes.
In addition to potassium, they have phosphorus, calcium and trace elements needed for potatoes. On average, the consumption rate is 150 kilograms per hectare.
For sandy lands, the standard is increased, and on clay soils, doses are reduced.Potassium fertilizer
Nitrogen top dressing
They are used in the form of ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate.
They need to be careful: they required most during growthIf you increase the dose, then all the benefits will go to the stems, and the fruits will be poor.
Nitrogen increases plant growth and vegetation. If the saturation is large, the roots can get burned, and harmful substances can accumulate in the fruit.
Of all the types of feedings, only carbamide is laid in the ground in autumn and spring. Ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate are used only in spring, before they plan to plant tubers.
Supplements do not bring deep into the ground, and sprinkle them on the surface. Ammonium sulfate is forbidden to mix with dolomite flour, and urea with superphosphate.Nitrogen supplement
Phosphorus-based products increase root growth, color and fruiting potatoes. It is very important to apply them at the very beginning of plant development. Phosphorus increases the frost resistance of the plant, and well affects the storage properties of tubers.
Phosphorus is needed in medium quantities, but an excess or deficiency does not have a detrimental effect on the potato.
When choosing a top dressing you need to remember that Phosphorus is in ash, humus and good nitrogen manure.Separate phosphate fertilizer is not found - high-quality manure will come to the rescue
Planting potatoes with manure in the nest
To dung well acted on picking potatoes, you need to add to the soil in a rotten form. Manure must be distributed in areas and dig. Manure is applied at the rate of 400 kg per one plot.
There is another method of making it when planting potatoes. Dung add 300 g per well. For even distribution apply measured capacity. After adding manure to the hole, it is covered with soil, and potatoes are placed on top.
The excellent result of foliar fertilizer potatoes gives superphosphate. It is made after the flowering of potatoes, as it contains hydrolysis.
Introduction to the foliage of chemical components can lead to the binding of photosynthesis. The result may be a root disease and a poor harvest. To avoid this, you need to withstand time feeding.Superphosphate
It is a chemical containing 45% nitrogen, ensures the growth of potatoes. To feed potatoes with this remedy does not harm fruits and foliage.
They are prepared by diluting mineral supplements and minerals with water. For this take mullein, bird droppings, manure slush and others.
Use them before flowering, when the growth of the plant has reached 15 centimeters.
For the manufacture of liquid fertilizers H2O bred:
- 4-5 shares of cow dung;
- 2-3 parts of manure slurry;
Mineral supplements - according to the instructions.
Liquid feeds fill the wells, or carry out watering between the rows. Feeding is done twice.
Humus is added in spring, either directly to the well, or to the furrow during planting. This is the most budget option. It increases soil fertility, assists in increasing the yield.
Humus is an excellent addition to potatoes. It is best to cook it yourself, then it turns out clean.
For this you need take 9/10 waste and 1/10 soil. Fold in the container prepared in advance, carefully move. After one two months can use.Humus
In rural areas, problems with organic matter do not arise. In every village there is cattle, poultry, which gives excellent organic fertilizers.
If there is a lot of manurethen it is simply distributed in the fields and dug up. Do not abuse the organic.
There are still organics such as:
- Bird droppings;
Planting potatoes with chicken droppings
It is not allowed to use chicken manure undiluted. To use it, you need to prepare the solution, in a ratio of 1 to 15.
The solution must be watered under the root bushes.Chicken droppings
Root and foliar fertilizers
Top dressing of potatoes can be root or extra root. When root fertilizers can be put under the root, and when foliar plants are sprayed.
To root include:
Extra feeding potatoes carry out:
- Potassium permanganate.
What are the requirements for fertilizers
The types of fertilizers and how they affect are indicated in this table.
|Trace elements||What is important for||What is fraught with disadvantage|
|Nitrogen||Promotes rapid growth||Too early ripening, which affects a small crop|
|Phosphorus||Increases the mass of starch and protects against fungal diseases||Tubers may have rust color|
|Potassium||Strengthen immunity to various diseases, affects the safety of tubers||Reduced yield, not stored for a long time|
Factors affecting potato yield
The amount of potato harvest will depend on the full range of conditions and factors:
- Quality of planting material;
- How correct will be processed potatoes before landing;
- Whether the technology was respected when landing;
- In what area and under what weather conditions was the crop grown;
- What soil planted potatoes;
- How was watering;
- Whether the standards were observed when planting potatoes;
- How was the pest control of the plant?
How to fertilize potatoes
Many gardeners are interested in the question of how to fertilize potatoes. Here are a few methods:
- Solid. This method assumes that fertilizers will be applied to the entire sown area;
- Local. With this method, fertilizing is introduced directly into the ground near the plants.
Professionals advise the use of the second method, since it is more effective. Chicken dung, manure, ash and mineral resources are used as fertilizers.
It must be remembered that overdoing with additives is not worth it, you need to keep a balance and always correctly calculate the dose.
Autumn soil preparation
Preparing the soil in the fall is the key to a good harvest of potatoes for the next year. Soil is prepared before the onset of frost.
Today, gardeners use two methods of soil preparation in the fall:
- Gentle preparation, deep loosening.
The plot is dug up on the bayonet of the shovel, while removing all the weeds and making the necessary fertilizers. It is better if manure is taken as top dressing. Bring it at the rate of 7 kilograms of manure per m2. You can add potassium sulfate and superphosphate.
- Application of siders.
The soil is dug up and planted on the site with green plants, which in the spring mow and fall asleep ten centimeters of soil. It enriches the soil very well.
If fertilizing is not done on time
Better dressing carried out at the first tuber tuation. After that within three weeks the plant will grow by a third, it is necessary to re-fill it and feed it again. Also during hilling it is possible to feed the tubers with mineral additives with the content of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus.Hilling is the time when you can feed potatoes out of turn.
What to fertilize during the formation and maturation of tubers
Conducting foliar feeding, the plant is saturated with microelements, as a result, the potatoes will be large and tasty.
Feed do two times:
- After a flowering period plants need to feed manganese and boron. This will improve the taste of potatoes and will not allow voids in the tubers.
To carry out dressing it is enough to buy mineral dressings in the store and dilute them in accordance with the instructions.
- One month before harvest spend the second feeding. To do this, apply a universal fertilizer, which includes phosphorus and superphosphate.
How to feed after germination
After the first shoots appeared, the potatoes can and should be fertilized. At this time, the plant requires nitrogen, which will increase and strengthen its growth.
The main requirement when carrying out top dressing is compliance with the dosage. If the plant is overnourished with nitrogen, then all the power will go to the tops, and the tubers will not get anything.
Also when dosage is exceeded, leaves potato may get burnedthat is not very favorable impact on the harvest.Fertilization can reduce yields.
Methods of fertilizing the soil
There are two ways of adding feedings to the soil: spreading and local.
At the first admission, take a dose and scatter on the ground manually, evenly. The same technique produces foliar feedings of potatoes. After that, they dig up the earth and water it.
Local application is divided into two types: side by side and in the hole. It consists in mixing fertilizers with a small amount of soil and forming foci saturated with fertilizers.
By the time: there is a regular top dressing when planting or fertilizing during plant growth. The most effective is the introduction of additives simultaneously with organic.
The process of fertilizing the ground
Share three methods of technology fertilizers soil:
- Direct flow;
Overload method implies section of machine and technological functions. Fertilizers are immersed in one car, transported to the field, unloaded into another vehicle for dispersion across the field.
The transshipment method is used to distribute organic fertilizers in the field. Organics are folded at the edges of the field, and then transported across the field with the help of special equipment.
Calculating the amount of fertilizer
The norm is considered to be an active substance - per% of the nutrient content per component.
Not all gardeners can calculate the rate using difficult and inconvenient formulas. Therefore, it is often used already calculated norms.
Organic make into the soil mainly buckets. In one 10 liter bucket fits about 5-9 pounds of humus, compost or peat.It is believed that one bucket of fertilizers such as compost holds 5-9 kg. depending on top dressing
Mineral fertilizers are measured in cans or glasses. One cup includes the following amount of fertilizer:
- Saltpeter, ammonium sulphate-160-180 g;
- Superphosphate, a mixture for fertilizer-200g;
- Potassium chloride-190g;
Different areas have different soil composition. Fertilizers can correct any deficiencies in the soil; if fertilized properly and when planting technology is observed, they will help to grow a decent crop.