Potatoes are rightly called the second bread. Everyone treats him with respect and reverence. Happy owners of summer cottages and gardens always provide a good place for culture. About sprouting and how to prepare potatoes before planting, we will tell in this article.
Do I need to germinate potatoes before planting and why
Well prepared planting material demonstrate quick germination, lack of empty nests and abundant harvest. Unprepared seed will slowly germinate, grow poorly, yield a meager crop.Germinated planting material ensures the best germination
At what time and how long to germinate potatoes
Rejected weak, rotten, damaged seeds. Tubers with very large, fragile processes are also not suitable for planting. During transport, thin long roots will easily break and the potatoes will not germinate.
What tubers need to take
Ready planting material need more from autumn. For landing fit a medium size, the size of a little more than an egg. This is the most optimal size. A small variety will be weak, will give a non-viable root, will not provide the shoots with sufficient nutrition.
It will be correct to cut a large tuber into parts, with such a condition that there are eyes on each.
Why potatoes degenerate
If the preparation of planting material is irresponsible, the culture begins to degenerate and loses its positive varietal qualities. This is because the landing get weak, non-standard options.The selection of substandard potatoes for planting will logically lead to negative results.
Large planting potatoes also does not fit. It will be difficult to "wake up". Such seeds are lethargic, inactive, "lazy."
How to sprout potatoes for planting
The preparation is as follows:
- Tubers removed from the vegetable store, sorted again, rejected seeds with signs of disease, rotted. Selected specimens should be thoroughly washed. In the soil for a long time, pathogenic bacteria that are dangerous to root crops can persist.
- Then etching is recommended, as much as possible to save planting material from harmful spores and bacteria. For this, boric acid can be used (10 g per liter of water).
- In the next stage the tubers are dried. Better to do it in the shade, in the barn or in the attic.
- After the potato dries, it is necessary warm up for several days at room temperature.
How to get seed from seed
Immediately after digging, the potatoes must be subjected to the first preparation procedure for storage. It must be "green." For this, the tubers must be laid out in the sun. For uniform exposure to sunlight, they need to be turned over regularly. How much should green? About 3 weeks.
So treated the seeds become hard, the skin becomes stiff, which greatly improves its storage. In addition, it becomes inedible for rodents (green potatoes contain poisonous solanine).
Next, the tubers are placed in storage in a dark cool room (basement, cellar, specially vegetable store). The optimal storage temperature is + 5 °. If the temperature is higher, the seeds will begin to germinate. If the temperature drops to 0 °, the potatoes will freeze.The potato greener due to the manifestation of solanine, protecting it from pests
How to quickly germinate potatoes for planting
Thanks to these types of processing, sprouts on potatoes appear in record time: in a week, in two. Still it is possible to recommend the use of plant growth stimulants and fertilizers. They stimulate intensive root growth.
Planting sprouted potatoes
When planting sprouted potatoes, it is necessary to take into account the region, the type of planting, the timing of ripening and soil characteristics.
"Flat" type of landing the most common. Suitable for good, sunny areas. Potatoes are planted in the hole and covered with earth without a hill.
The method of "comb" is intended for the territory of Siberia. Potatoes are planted on a hill in shallow holes. Immediately fertilizer is applied. As you grow bush spud, sprinkled with earth.Planting culture in Siberia requires a certain method due to climatic features
So the plant is protected from temperature extremes and adverse weather conditions. The risk of potato freezing is reduced.
The "trench" method is used on light peat and sandy soils. In such a soil, plants lack moisture. For this type of planting, a moat of about 10 cm is dug, fertilizers are applied.
The hole is poured, covered with soil. Top can be filled with mulch to preserve moisture.
Exists several germination options. They all help prepare the seeds before planting. Which option to choose, a personal matter of each gardener. The most popular methods are as follows:
In the dark
This method is quite simple and effective. In the dark, the emergence of shoots is slow, and thin shoots. It is necessary to periodically control the length of the shoots. To slow down their growth, you need to reduce the temperature in the room.
Recommended sprouting period - about 20 days. A necessary condition for this type of germination is to maintain a constant level of humidity. Tubers should be sprayed regularly.
In the light
Mandatory condition - the presence of sunlight. Without light, it is also able to germinate. But such a seedling will be weak, inactive.
If the room is too intense sunlight, tubers need to be appliedcovered with newspapers. Germination rate depends on the room temperature. The warmer, the faster the shoots will sprout.
If the place chosen for germination has no natural light, fluorescent lamps are suitable.
- At the very beginning it is recommended to decontaminate and feed the tubers. Disinfection can be carried out with a solution of potassium permanganate (approximately 2 g per bucket of water).
- In a week, process the tubers with a complex of mineral fertilizers.
- Then the temperature at the storage location it is desirable to lower to 20 °in a week to 15 °. This can be achieved by opening all the vents and doors.
- A couple of days before planting potatoes need to harden. For this, the seeds cover the access of light and reduce the temperature in the room to + 10 °. After this procedure, germination increases significantly.
The fastest and most effective way to germinate. Tubers are laid out in one or two layers in peat, hay or sawdust. A prerequisite is that the substrate should not dry out, otherwise the tender shoots will dry out. Usually sprouts are formed within 20 days.
Boxes must not be sealed.Water should not stagnate. It is important and the constant flow of air. The room should be heated, with a temperature not lower than + 12 °.
It is better not to water the soil in the boxes, but spray it with water with fertilizers dissolved in it (potatoes like potash salt and superphosphate).
- First, the seeds must be treated with fertilizer or EM - drug. This nourishes the tuber with vitamins and starts the mechanism of growth and development.
- Arrange the tubers in prepared boxes or boxes.
- Sawdust is poured with water, then lightly squeezed out and distributed over the potato, closing it completely.
- Boxes can be put one on another. The main thing is to make sure that the filings do not dry out.
- If it is not possible to place the boxes in the room, you can arrange the planting for germination directly on the garden. To do this, you must use a slurry "pillow", a height of at least 30 cm. The process of laying the seeds is the same: put the tubers and sprinkle with a moist substrate.
Required control that the length of the shoots does not exceed the diameter of himself tuber. Such seeds are not viable. During landing, they are badly damaged.
After a couple of weeks, the potatoes will ripen for planting. Heat and light will start the process of germinating seeds. The higher the temperature, the faster the sprouts will appear.
Effectively you can sprout potatoes in your own apartment. To do this, come to the aid of durable plastic bags. They need to make several small holes for ventilation.
In each package you can put about 10 tubers. Then the package is tied and is suspended in an apartment on the sunny side.
Periodically it is necessary to turn the bag over so that the sun's rays evenly affect the tubers. Too intense sunlight should be avoided.
Ready seed can ship directly in packages, but very carefully, so as not to damage the sprouts.
Sprouting in boxes with dressings
The planting material prepared in such a way turns out qualitative and strong.
- This will require boxes laid with cellophane. The potato is laid out in several layers, which is lined with peat, humus or sawdust. Several layers can be made.
- When everything is packed, you need shed water boxes. In a week, when the sprouts hatch, they need to be shed with a nutrient mineral mixture. To do this, take 10 g of potassium chloride and nitrate and combine with 50 g of superphosphate. Mix the mixture in a bucket of clean water and pour over the tubers. Fertilizers can be replaced with a glass of wood ash in 10 liters of water.
- A couple of days to repeat the vitamin watering.
- A week later, the tubers will be ready for planting.
- Potassium chloride
This method of germination is convenient with a small amount of planting material and if germination is planned in the conditions of the apartment. For this tubers pre placed for a week in a box with wet sawdust. After that, the seeds are distributed in clay pots with nutrient soil.
Recommended regular feeding of tubers with mineral fertilizers. At night, it is better to take the pots to the balcony in order to prepare the tubers for possible temperature changes. Hardening at temperatures below + 10 ° is not recommended.
In the process of seed preparation before planting, the procedure for tuber dressing should be included. It includes seed treatment with insecticides, growth promoters and fertilizers.
Also showing biostimulants rooting. Their list on the market is huge. The drugs "Poteytin" and "Mikom" are widely known. To increase the resistance of tubers to diseases they use copper sulphate, superphosphate, trace elements. Details on spraying options can be found in specialized stores.
Very convenient and easy way, in the absence of suitable premises. Germination in the garden can begin when the snow melts and the air temperature warms up to + 10 °. A layer of dry straw, sawdust or peat is laid on the ground.
Laid out dry potatoes in 1 - 2 layers. The resulting ridge is covered with a film that protects against night frosts and creates a greenhouse effect favorable for germination. The process will take from 1 to 3 weeks.
If a layer of manure is put under dry litter, the germination period will be significantly reduced.
Required monitor the maintenance of a comfortable temperature and humidity. Planted green seedlings planted in open ground can be when the soil warms up sufficiently and the danger of frost has passed.
Secrets to improve the harvest
To increase the quantity and quality of the crop, the following tips from experienced gardeners should be taken into account:
- Treatment with mineral complex is recommended on the day of planting. Tubers are soaked for several hours in fertilizer, dried and immediately planted.
- A large number of planting potatoes easier to fertilize by spraying. It is necessary to perform the procedure every week for a month.
- The day before planting, it is recommended to treat the growth stimulator tubers. This activates germination, speeds up metabolism and increases yield.
- If there is no specially planting material, you can prepare the seed yourself from ordinary potatoes. To do this, large tubers are cut into several pieces, so that each have eyes. Such manipulation is performed not only for reasons of economy. In the cut tuber stress hormones are produced, and the process of accelerated regeneration and rooting begins.
- The mulch will help to keep moisture and food in the soil for a long time.
Do not be lazy when preparing seed potatoes for planting. There are many ways to handle planting material. This can be done with minimal financial and time costs: in the basement, in the garden, and even in your own apartment.
Well germinated tubers are capable of producing an early, abundant crop. And the use of all the secrets and recommendations proposed in this article will help increase potato yield at times.